Space Law & Lawyers

What is space law?

Space law can be described as the body of law applicable to and governing space-related activities. The term "space law" is most often associated with the rules, principles and standards of international law appearing in the five international treaties and five sets of principles governing outer space which have been elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Organization. However, space law also includes international agreements, treaties, conventions, rules and regulations of international organizations (eg. the International Telecommunications Union), national laws, rules and regulations, executive and administrative orders, and judicial decisions.

States which have national law and legislation governing space-related activities include inter alia Argentina, Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Sweden, South Africa, Tunisia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

Why do we need law about outer space?

Outer space is an exciting and highly important region, which because of its unique nature holds the potential for both significant benefits and dangers. The primary goals of space law are to ensure a rational, responsible approach to the exploration and use of outer space for the benefit and in the interests of all humankind. To this end, space law addresses a variety of diverse matters, such as military activities in outer space, preservation of the space and Earth environment, liability for damages caused by space objects, settlement of disputes, protection of national interests, rescue of astronauts, sharing of information about potential dangers in outer space, use of space-related technologies, and international cooperation.

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

What is the legal difference between the five international treaties and the five sets of principles elaborated through the United Nations?

Following their adoption by the General Assembly, the five international treaties governing outer space were opened for signature and ratification by Member States. Under international law, their provisions are binding upon those States who have ratified them. In addition, they articulate agreed upon principles relating to the exploration and use of outer space which may guide even those States which have not legally bound themselves to the provisions. The five sets of principles have the legal status of General Assembly resolutions. They provide generally accepted principles, rules and standards by which States may, and very often do, govern their space related activities.

How many States have signed and ratified the five international treaties governing outer space?

As of 1 January 2006:

The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Outer Space Treaty") has been ratified by 98 States and signed by 27 others.

The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Rescue Agreement") has been ratified by 88 States and signed by 25 others. In addition, one international intergovernmental organization has declared its acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Agreement.

The Convention on International Liability for Damage Causes by Space Objects (the "Liability Convention") has been ratified by 83 States and signed by 25 others. In addition, three international intergovernmental organizations have declared their acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Convention.

The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Registration Convention") been ratified by 46 States and signed by 4 others. In addition, two international intergovernmental organizations have declared their acceptance of the rights and obligations provided for in this Convention.

The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Moon Agreement") has been ratified by 12 States and signed by 4 others.

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

Do the five international treaties regulate military activities in outer space?

Yes. The Outer Space Treaty prohibits States Parties from placing in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, installing such weapons on celestial bodies, or stationing such weapons in outer space in any other manner. The Treaty also states that the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and prohibits the establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any types of weapons and the conduct of military manoeuvres on such celestial bodies. However the use of military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes is not prohibited.

The Moon Agreement expands upon the provisions of the Outer Space Treaty by also prohibiting any threat or use of force, any other hostile act or threat of hostile act on the  Moon (or other celestial bodies in the solar system) and any use of the Moon (or other celestial bodies in the solar system) in order to commit such acts or threats in relation to the Earth, the Moon, spacecraft, personnel of spacecraft or man-made space objects.

Can any State claim a part of outer space as its own?

No. The Outer Space Treaty states that outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies  is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means. The Treaty establishes the exploration and use of outer space as the "province of all mankind". The Moon Agreement expands on these provisions by stating that neither the surface nor the subsurface of the Moon (or other celestial bodies in the solar system), nor any part thereof or natural resources in place, shall become property of any State, international intergovernmental or non-governmental organization, national organization or non- governmental entity or of any natural person.

Treaties and Space Law

The treaties control space-related activities of States. What about non-governmental entities active in outer space, like companies and even individuals?

The Outer Space Treaty states that States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried out by governmental agencies or non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the treaty. The Treaty further states that the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party.

What is the legal position of astronauts in outer space, and can they be detained if they crash-land in a foreign territory?

In terms of the Outer Space Treaty, States on whose registry an object launched into outer space is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and over any personnel thereof, while in outer space or on a celestial body. Therefore, except where agreed otherwise by States (for example, in the case of joint projects) personnel of spacecraft in outer space are subject to the laws of the State of registry. In addition, the Outer Space Treaty and the Rescue Agreement provide that astronauts shall be regarded as the "envoys of mankind in space" and shall be rendered all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress or emergency landing. It is also  required that astronauts landing or being found in foreign territory or the high seas be safely and promptly returned to representatives of their launching authority or state of registry.

The Outer Space Treaty

Who owns satellites and other space objects that inadvertently return to earth or become "lost" in outer space ? Can they be claimed by anybody able to salvage them?

The Outer Space Treaty states that ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer space or on a celestial body or by their return to earth. In other words, satellites and other space objects remain the property of their original owners regardless of their location. The Outer Space Treaty and the Rescue Agreement then go on to specifically provide for the return of all space objects or their component parts to their original launching authority or state of registry if they are discovered or recovered in a foreign territory or on the high seas.

Are States liable for damages which might be caused by their space objects in outer space or on the Earth?

According to the Outer Space Treaty and the Liability Convention, States Parties that launch or procure the launch of an object into outer space, or from whose territory or facility an object is launched, are internationally liable for damage caused by that object or its component parts. Such damage includes loss of life, personal injury or other impairment of health; or loss of or damage to property of States or of persons, natural or juridical (ie companies etc.), or of international organizations. The Liability Convention provides for damage suffered on the surface of the Earth, to aircraft in flight, and to other space objects or persons and property on such other space objects.

Compensation for Damages caused by objects in outer Space

Can private individuals and companies suffering damages from a space object could sue the launching State?

Claims under the Liability Convention for compensation for damages caused by space objects can only be presented through diplomatic channels by States on their own behalf, on behalf of their nationals, on behalf of persons suffering damage within their territory, or on behalf of their permanent residents. Also, the Liability Convention does not apply in the case of damages suffered by a launching State's own nationals. However, the Liability Convention specifically states that nothing in its provisions shall prevent a State, or natural or juridical persons it might represent, from pursuing a claim in the courts or administrative tribunals or agencies of a launching State.

How can we find out what has been launched into outer space, and who is responsible for it?

A registry of launchings has been maintained by the United Nations Secretariat since 1962, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1721 B (XVI). Information contained therein is provided on a voluntary basis by Member States and also issued in United Nations documents in the A/AC.105/INF series. In addition, the Registration Convention of 1976 requires States Parties to maintain an appropriate registry of space objects they launch into outer space, and further to transmit certain information concerning each space object carried on their registries to the United Nations Secretary-General. The United Nations Secretariat maintains a second register in which this information is recorded and to which there is full and open access. Aside from the United Nations, various space agencies and organizations around the world monitor, record and track objects launched into outer space.

Where can I get more information on space law and other legal documents relating to outer space?

Information can be obtained from legal libraries (handbooks, legal journals, periodicals), universities, space agencies and also numerous Internet sites relating to outer space. Furthermore, a list of international agreements and other available legal documents relevant to space related activities (and where they might be found) has been prepared by the Office of Outer Space Affairs as a reference document for the member States of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

United Nations Treaties and Principles on Space Law

The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is the only international forum for the development of international space law. Since its inception, the Committee has concluded five international legal instruments and five sets of legal principles governing space-related activities.

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

Space Law United Nations Treaties

The five treaties and agreements pertaining to Space Law are:

  1. The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Outer Space Treaty"), adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2222 (XXI), opened for signature on 27 January 1967, entered into force on 10 October 1967;
  2. The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Rescue Agreement"), adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2345 (XXII), opened for signature on 22 April 1968, entered into force on 3 December 1968;
  3. The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (the "Liability Convention"), adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2777 (XXVI), opened for signature on 29 March 1972, entered into force on 1 September 1972;
  4. The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Registration Convention"), adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 3235 (XXIX), opened for signature on 14 January 1975, entered into force on 15 September 1976;
  5. The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Moon Agreement"), adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 34/68, opened for signature on 18 December 1979, entered into force on 11 July 1984.

    The international legal principles in these five treaties provide for non-appropriation of outer space by any one country, arms control, the freedom of exploration, liability for damage caused by space objects, the safety and rescue of spacecraft and astronauts, the prevention of harmful interference with space activities and the environment, the notification and registration of space activities, scientific investigation and the exploitation of natural resources in outer space and the settlement of disputes. Each of the treaties lays great stress on the notion that the domain of outer space, the activities carried out therein and whatever benefits might accrue therefrom should be devoted to enhancing the well-being of all countries and humankind, and each includes elements elaborating the common idea of promoting international cooperation in outer space activities.

    The five sets of legal principles adopted by the United Nations General Assembly provide for the application of international law and promotion of international cooperation and understanding in space activities, the dissemination and exchange of information through transnational direct television broadcasting via satellites and remote satellite observations of Earth and general standards regulating the safe use of nuclear power sources necessary for the exploration and use of outer space.

    The five declarations and legal principles are:
  1. The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space (General Assembly resolution 1962 (XVIII) of 13 December 1963);
  2. The Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting (resolution 37/92 of 10 December 1982);
  3. The Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (resolution 41/65 of 3 December 1986);
  4. The Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (resolution 47/68 of 14 December 1992);
  5. The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries (resolution 51/122 of 13 December 1996)

Geostationary orbit allocation

Satellites in geostationary orbit must all occupy a single ring above the equator, approximately 35,800 km into space. The requirement to space these satellites apart means that there is a limited number of orbital "slots" available, thus only a limited number of satellites can be placed in geostationary orbit. This has led to conflict between different countries wishing access to the same orbital slots (countries at the same longitude but differing latitudes). These disputes are addressed through the ITU allocation mechanism.[15] Countries located at the Earth's equator have also asserted their legal claim to control the use of space above their territory. In 1976, countries located at the Earth's equator created the Bogota Declaration, in which they asserted their legal claim to control the use of space above their territory.

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

 

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NEWS, UPDATES & FURTHER INFORMATION - SPACE LAW

Space Law - International principles and declarations

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

The five treaties and agreements of international space law cover "non-appropriation of outer space by any one country, arms control, the freedom of exploration, liability for damage caused by space objects, the safety and rescue of spacecraft and astronauts, the prevention of harmful interference with space activities and the environment, the notification and registration of space activities, scientific investigation and the exploitation of natural resources in outer space and the settlement of disputes."

The United Nations General Assembly adopted five declarations and legal principles which encourage exercising the international laws, as well as unified communication between countries. The five declarations and principles are:

The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space (1963)

All space exploration will be done with good intentions and is equally open to all States that comply with international law. No one nation may claim ownership of outer space or any celestial body. Activities carried out in space must abide by the international law and the nations undergoing these said activities must accept responsibility for the governmental or non-governmental agency involved. Objects launched into space are subject to their nation of belonging, including people. Objects, parts, and components discovered outside the jurisdiction of a nation will be returned upon identification. If a nation launches an object into space, they are responsible for any damages that occur internationally.

The Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting (1982)

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

Activities of this nature must be transpire in accordance with the sovereign rights of States. Said activities should "promote the free dissemination and mutual exchange of information and knowledge in cultural and scientific fields, assist in educational, social and economic development, particularly in the developing countries, enhance the qualities of life of all peoples and provide recreation with due respect to the political and cultural integrity of States." All States have equal rights to pursue these activities and must maintain responsibility for anything carried out under their boundaries of authority. States planning activities need to contact the Secretary-General of the United Nations with details of the undergoing activities.

The Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (1986)

Fifteen principles are stated under this category. The basic understanding comes from these descriptions given by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs: (a) The term "remote sensing" means the sensing of the Earth's surface from space by making use of the properties of electromagnetic waves emitted, reflected or :diffracted by the sensed objects, for the purpose of improving natural resources management, land use and the protection of the environment; (b) The term "primary data" means those raw data that are acquired by remote sensors borne by a space object and that are transmitted or delivered to the ground :from space by telemetry in the form of electromagnetic signals, by photographic film, magnetic tape or any other means; (c) The term "processed data" means the products resulting from the processing of the primary data, needed to make such data usable; (d) The term "analysed information" means the information resulting from the interpretation of processed data, inputs of data and knowledge from other sources; (e) The term "remote sensing activities" means the operation of remote sensing space systems, primary data collection and storage stations, and activities in :processing, interpreting and disseminating the processed data.

The Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (1992)

"States launching space objects with nuclear power sources on board shall endeavour to protect individuals, populations and the biosphere against radiological hazards. The design and use of space objects with nuclear power sources on board shall ensure, with a high degree of confidence, that the hazards, in foreseeable operational or accidental circumstances, are kept below acceptable levels..."

The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries (1996)

"States are free to determine all aspects of their participation in international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis. All States, particularly those with relevant space capabilities and with programmes for the exploration and use of outer space, should contribute to promoting and fostering international cooperation on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis. In this context, particular attention should be given to the benefit for and the interests of developing countries and countries with incipient space programmes stemming from such international cooperation conducted with countries with more advanced space capabilities.International cooperation should be conducted in the modes that are considered most effective and appropriate by the countries concerned, including, inter alia, governmental and non-governmental; commercial and non-commercial; global, multilateral, regional or bilateral; and international cooperation among countries in all levels of development."

Should you wish to obtain legal help regarding any aspect of space law, then please complete your free legal enquiry form.

Space Law & Lawyers Updates

Disasters Charter: Flood in Sudan

Sat, 30 Aug 2014 13:01:59 +0000

The Disasters Charter was activated for a Flood in Sudan: Flood in Sudan Type of Event: Flood Location of Event: Sudan Date of Charter Activation: 05 August 2014 Charter Requestor: UNITAR/UNOSAT on behalf of UNOCHA Project Management: China Center for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) Description of the Event Several weeks of heavy rain […]

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UK Government Review of commercial spaceplane certification and operations

Fri, 29 Aug 2014 13:54:44 +0000

THe United Kingdoms Civil Aviation Authority has released report titled UK Government Review of commercial spaceplane certification and operations: Technical report as well as a briefer UK Government review of commercial spaceplane certification and operations Summary and conclusions.

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DoD and SDA sign Space Situational Awareness Agreement

Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:30:00 +0000

Source – Space Newsfeed: Space Data Association and US DoD sign space situational awareness agreement (8 August 2014) The United States Department of Defense (US DoD) has signed an agreement with the Space Data Association (SDA) to participate in the DoD’s Space Situational Awareness Data Sharing Program, the first such agreement with a non-satellite operator. […]

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ECSL Space Law Essay Contest

Tue, 26 Aug 2014 13:48:26 +0000

Source – ECSL: ECSL Essay Competition Essay Competition 2014 12 August 2014 In accordance with ECSL’s objectives, to promote knowledge of and interest in the law relating to space activities through the promotion of research activities, it has been decided by the ECSL Board to inaugurate the first ECSL Essay Competition. The competition will challenge […]

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Library: A Round-up of Reading

Mon, 25 Aug 2014 13:33:57 +0000

Space Law David C. DeFrieze, Defining and Regulating the Weaponization of Space, JFQ 74 Roscosmos suggests starting the creation of moon base elements and exploration robots – ITAR-TASS Mining the Moon? Space Property Rights Still Unclear, Experts Say – Yahoo News Japan's Military Will Patrol Earth's Orbit – Mina SpaceX Gets its Incentives for Texas […]

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Dentons Opens Space Law Practice Group

Fri, 22 Aug 2014 13:29:22 +0000

Source – Washington Post: International law firm Dentons has created a practice group focused on representing companies that manufacture, operate and invest in satellites, as it eyes potential in the fast-growing commercial space industry. The new group is led by attorneys Del Smith, Liz Evans and Deepak Reddy, who recently joined Dentons from Jones Day. […]

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Event: International Space Conference

Wed, 13 Aug 2014 13:08:58 +0000

The International Space Conference will be held on January 8-9, 2015 in Noida, India: India is now rising up as one of the main contenders in Space Market with successful launch of satellites of other countries with continuous R&D growth. As the most important emerging space market with continuous growth in R&D and so, it […]

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Event: 4th IAA Planetary Defense Conference – Protecting our planet from impacts by asteroids and comets

Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:49:29 +0000

Source – IAA: 4th IAA Planetary Defense Conference Protecting our planet from impacts by asteroids and comets The past IAA Planetary Defense Conferences are available on this website Armillary Sphere in ESRIN ESA ESRIN, Frascati, Italy If you want to receive conference update, please join our Email list at Contact us The International Academy of […]

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Library: A Round-up of Reading

Mon, 11 Aug 2014 14:01:39 +0000

Space Law Department of Defense (DoD)—U.S.A.F. Readiness Is Under Siege…. (Government) – Satnews Daily At Future Space, members of Congress discuss future of space legislation – Space Politics Senate Spending Bill Directs U.S. Air Force To Develop Alternative GPS Payload – Space News Capitol Hill Responds to the Lure of Europa – Planetary Society Palazzo […]

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China-Italy Space Cooperation

Fri, 08 Aug 2014 13:39:43 +0000

Source – ASI: Italy and China, cooperation in space The head of the Chinese Space Agency in Italy for a two-day institutional visit. The CNSA President Xu Dazhe meets the Minister Giannini in Rome. A letter of intent signed at the ASI headquarters to establish a Cooperation Committee. Followed by a visit to the TAS-I […]

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"Outer space is a province of all mankind," says Sylvia Ospina, a member of the board of directors at the International Institute of Space Law.


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A Directory


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space law

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Space law

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Space Law

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Moon Mining Idea Digs Up Lunar Legal Issues | Lunar .. - Space.com


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Whenever authorities in the air and space law community have something to say, they are likely to say it in Air and Space Law, the preeminent journal of vital ..


Air & Space Law - SS09273379 Kluwer Law International


Whenever authorities in the air and space law community have something to say, they are likely to say it in Air and Space Law , the preeminent journal of vital ..


Volume 3, Spring Issue, 1990 FORUM ON SPACE LAW EDITORS ..


The field of space law is rapidly growing and evolving to meet the chal- lenges of .. are considering the establishment of space law practice groups. 2. All three ..


Space Law | Secure World


Space law

is the body of national and international law concerning outer space and human activities in space.


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Friday, 22 September 2017
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If you have suffered a personal injury in a car accident, either as a:  driver, passenger, cyclist, motor cycle rider or pedestrian, you could be entitled to claim compensation, whether you have minor soft tissue injuries, whiplash, broken limbs, head injuries or far more serious injuries. It is important you obtain sound legal advice without any delay. Enquire today to find out what compensation you could be entitled to.

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Car accidents happen every day. If you have been affected from a road related incident, the chances are you could be entitled to claim a compensation payout. You should seek legal advice immediately. even if you are the victim of a hit-and-run accident you could still be eligible to claim compensation. Please complete your free legal enquiry form to find out more.

There are time limits that apply to CTP claims and it is important to seek legal advice immediately to ensure that your rights entitlements are protected.

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If you have been injured in a Road related accident either as a driver, passenger, pedestrian, motorcyclist or cyclist, you could be entitled to claim a significant compensation payout. You should seek legal advice immediately to find out what you could be entitled to claim.

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Cyclist Accidents and Injuries

Quite often cyclists are not given proper care and attention by other road users. This can result in accidents occurring between car, trucks and other motor vehicles with bicycle riders. Motorists often fail to give way to cyclists therby causing an accident with the cyclist.

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